从考古学资料认识尼希米时代的耶路撒冷城墙。（主要参考资料：“Jerusalem in the time of Nehemiah”- Leen & Kathleen Ritmeyer 2014）
《尼希米记》记述的，在硬体方面是耶路撒冷城墙的修建；在软体方面也是重建犹太人的信仰生活，包括恢复古代节期 - 住棚节，严格遵守安息日为圣日，重新确定上帝与以色列所立的约，处理一些社会不公的问题，和再次对付那些行可憎之事 - 娶外邦女子为妻的犹大人。
反观《以斯拉记》的重建圣殿过程，我们看到因外面敌人（特别是撒马利亚人）的阻扰 - 贿买谋士，要败坏他们的谋算 - 犹太人便立刻手软，建殿工程停工了约 15/16年。后来因有先知哈该和撒迦利亚的劝勉，还有大利乌王（Darius I 522BC-486BC）的寻获原先的诏令，他们才被允准重新开工（约520BC），在经过约三年半至四年的时间，在大利乌王第六年（515BC），这殿才修成。除了重建圣殿，按拉四：6-23 的记载，圣殿重建后，敌人也在波斯王亚哈随鲁（薛西一世 Xerxes I ，486BC-465BC）和亚达薛西（Artaxerxes I，465BC-425BC）在位的时候，分别上本控告他们。控告什么呢？说他们修建城墙（拉四：12，13，21）。这是发生在尼希米回归耶路撒冷，修筑城墙之前（458BC）。因亚达薛西王下诏（在位早期）命他们停工，所以我们才看到尼一：1-3 说：“亚达薛西王二十年（444BC）基斯流月，我在书珊城的宫中。那时，有我一个弟兄哈拿尼，同着几个人从犹大来。我问他们那些被掳归回剩下逃脱的犹大人和耶路撒冷的光景。他们对我说：‘那些被掳归回剩下的人在犹大省遭大难，受凌辱；并且耶路撒冷的城墙拆毁，城门被火焚烧。’”
1那时，大祭司以利亚实（Eliashib the high priest）和他的弟兄众祭司起来建立羊门（sheep gate），分别为圣，安立门扇，又筑城墙到哈米亚楼（the tower of Meah），直到哈楠业楼（the tower of Hananeel），分别为圣。
11哈琳的儿子玛基雅和巴哈摩押的儿子哈述修造一段，并修造炉楼（the tower of the furnaces）。
13哈嫩和撒挪亚的居民修造谷门（The valley gate），立门、安门扇和闩锁，又建筑城墙一千肘，直到粪厂门（the dung gate）。
14管理伯哈基琳、利甲的儿子玛基雅修造粪厂门（the dung gate），立门、安门扇和闩锁。
15管理米斯巴、各荷西的儿子沙仑修造泉门（the gate of the fountain），立门、盖门顶、安门扇和闩锁，又修造靠近王园西罗亚池的墙垣 （the wall of the pool of Siloah by the king's garden），直到那从大卫城下来的台阶（unto the stairs that go down from the city of David）。
16其次是管理伯夙一半、押卜的儿子尼希米修造，直到大卫坟地（the sepulchres of David）的对面，又到挖成的池子（the pool that was made），并勇士的房屋。
19其次是管理米斯巴、耶书亚的儿子以谢修造一段，对着武库的上坡城墙转弯之处（the armoury at the turning of the wall）。
20其次是萨拜的儿子巴录竭力修造一段，从城墙转弯，直到大祭司以利亚实的府门（from the turning of the wall unto the door of the house of Eliashib the high priest）。
24其次是希拿达的儿子宾内修造一段，从亚撒利雅的房屋直到城墙转弯，又到城角（unto the turning of the wall, even unto the corner）。
25乌赛的儿子巴拉修造对着城墙的转弯（the turning of the wall）和王上宫凸出来的城楼（the tower which lieth out from the king's high house），靠近护卫院（the court of the prison）的那一段。其次是巴录的儿子毘大雅修造。
26（尼提宁住在俄斐勒 Ophel，直到朝东水门的对面和凸出来的城楼 unto the place over against the water gate toward the east, and the tower that lieth out。）
27其次是提哥亚人又修一段，对着那凸出来的大楼（the great tower that lieth out），直到俄斐勒的墙（the wall of Ophel）。
28从马门（the horse gate）往上，众祭司各对自己的房屋修造。
31其次是银匠玛基雅修造到尼提宁和商人的房屋，对着哈米弗甲门（the gate Miphkad），直到城的角楼（the going up of the corner）。
1 Then Eliashib the high priest rose up with his brethren the priests, and they builded the sheep gate; they sanctified it, and set up the doors of it; even unto the tower of Meah they sanctified it, unto the tower of Hananeel.
2 And next unto him builded the men of Jericho. And next to them builded Zaccur the son of Imri.
3 But the fish gate did the sons of Hassenaah build, who also laid the beams thereof, and set up the doors thereof, the locks thereof, and the bars thereof.
4 And next unto them repaired Meremoth the son of Urijah, the son of Koz. And next unto them repaired Meshullam the son of Berechiah, the son of Meshezabeel. And next unto them repaired Zadok the son of Baana.
5 And next unto them the Tekoites repaired; but their nobles put not their necks to the work of their Lord.
6 Moreover the old gate repaired Jehoiada the son of Paseah, and Meshullam the son of Besodeiah; they laid the beams thereof, and set up the doors thereof, and the locks thereof, and the bars thereof.
7 And next unto them repaired Melatiah the Gibeonite, and Jadon the Meronothite, the men of Gibeon, and of Mizpah, unto the throne of the governor on this side the river.
8 Next unto him repaired Uzziel the son of Harhaiah, of the goldsmiths. Next unto him also repaired Hananiah the son of one of the apothecaries, and they fortified Jerusalem unto the broad wall.
9 And next unto them repaired Rephaiah the son of Hur, the ruler of the half part of Jerusalem.
10 And next unto them repaired Jedaiah the son of Harumaph, even over against his house. And next unto him repaired Hattush the son of Hashabniah.
11 Malchijah the son of Harim, and Hashub the son of Pahath-moab, repaired the other piece, and the tower of the furnaces.
12 And next unto him repaired Shallum the son of Halohesh, the ruler of the half part of Jerusalem, he and his daughters.
13 The valley gate repaired Hanun, and the inhabitants of Zanoah; they built it, and set up the doors thereof, the locks thereof, and the bars thereof, and a thousand cubits on the wall unto the dung gate.
14 But the dung gate repaired Malchiah the son of Rechab, the ruler of part of Beth-haccerem; he build it, and set up the doors thereof, the locks thereof, and the bars thereof.
15 But the gate of the fountain repaired Shallun the son of Col-hozeh, the ruler of part of Mizpah; he built it, and covered it, and set up the doors thereof, the locks thereof, and the bars thereof, and the wall of the pool of Siloah by the king's garden, and unto the stairs that go down from the city of David.
16 After him repaired Nehemiah the son of Azbuk, the ruler of the half part of Beth-zur, unto the place over against the sepulchres of David, and to the pool that was made, and unto the house of the mighty.
17 After him repaired the Levites, Rehum the son of Bani. Next unto him repaired Hashabiah, the ruler of the half part of Keilah, in his part.
18 After him repaired their brethren, Bavai the son of Henadad, the ruler of the half part of Keilah.
19 And next to him repaired Ezer the son of Jeshua, the ruler of Mizpah, another piece over against the going up to the armoury at the turning of the wall.
20 After him Baruch the son of Zabbai earnestly repaired the other piece, from the turning of the wall unto the door of the house of Eliashib the high priest.
21 After him repaired Meremoth the son of Urijah the son of Koz another piece, from the door of the house of Eliashib even to the end of the house of Eliashib.
22 And after him repaired the priests, the men of the plain.
23 After him repaired Benjamin and Hashub over against their house. After him repaired Azariah the son of Maaseiah the son of Ananiah by his house.
24 After him repaired Binnui the son of Henadad another piece, from the house of Azariah unto the turning of the wall, even unto the corner.
25 Palal the son of Uzai, over against the turning of the wall, and the tower which lieth out from the king's high house, that was by the court of the prison. After him Pedaiah the son of Parosh.
26 Moreover the Nethinims dwelt in Ophel, unto the place over against the water gate toward the east, and the tower that lieth out.
27 After them the Tekoites repaired another piece, over against the great tower that lieth out, even unto the wall of Ophel.
28 From above the horse gate repaired the priests, every one over against his house.
29 After them repaired Zadok the son of Immer over against his house. After him repaired also Shemaiah the son of Shechaniah, the keeper of the east gate.
30 After him repaired Hananiah the son of Shelemiah, and Hanun the sixth son of Zalaph, another piece. After him repaired Meshullam the son of Berechiah over against his chamber.
31 After him repaired Malchiah the goldsmith's son unto the place of the Nethinims, and of the merchants, over against the gate Miphkad, and to the going up of the corner.
32 And between the going up of the corner unto the sheep gate repaired the goldsmiths and the merchants.
37他们经过泉门（fountain gate）往前，从大卫城的台阶（the stairs of the city of David），随地势而上（at the going up of the wall），在大卫宫殿以上（above the house of David），直行到朝东的水门（the water gate eastward）。
38第二队称谢的人要与那一队相迎而行。我和民的一半跟随他们，在城墙上过了炉楼（the tower of the furnaces），直到宽墙（broad wall）。
39又过了以法莲门（gate of Ephraim）、古门（old gate）、鱼门（fish gate）、哈楠业楼（the tower of Hananeel）、哈米亚楼 （the tower of Meah），直到羊门（sheep gate），就在护卫门（prison gate）站住。
31 Then I brought up the princes of Judah upon the wall, and appointed two great companies of them that gave thanks, whereof one went on the right hand upon the wall toward the dung gate:
32 And after them went Hoshaiah, and half of the princes of Judah,
33 And Azariah, Ezra, and Meshullam,
34 Judah, and Benjamin, and Shemaiah, and Jeremiah,
35 And certain of the priests' sons with trumpets; namely, Zechariah the son of Jonathan, the son of Shemaiah, the son of Mattaniah, the son of Michaiah, the son of Zaccur, the son of Asaph:
36 And his brethren, Shemaiah, and Azarael, Milalai, Gilalai, Maai, Nethaneel, and Judah, Hanani, with the musical instruments of David the man of God, and Ezra the scribe before them.
37 And at the fountain gate, which was over against them, they went up by the stairs of the city of David, at the going up of the wall, above the house of David, even unto the water gate eastward.
38 And the other company of them that gave thanks went over against them, and I after them, and the half of the people upon the wall, from beyond the tower of the furnaces even unto the broad wall;
39 And from above the gate of Ephraim, and above the old gate, and above the fish gate, and the tower of Hananeel, and the tower of Meah, even unto the sheep gate: and they stood still in the prison gate.
40 So stood the two companies of them that gave thanks in the house of God, and I, and the half of the rulers with me:
（Ref：“Jerusalem in the time of Nehemiah”- Leen & Kathleen Ritmeyer 2014）
该段城墙的立体图 尼希米时代的耶路撒冷城墙（立体图） 尼希米时代的耶路撒冷城墙（平面图） 图一 图二 图三 图四 图五 图六 图七 图八 图九 图十 图十一 图十二 图十三 图十四 图十五 图十六 图十七 图十八 图十九 图二十 图二十一 东门（金门）
或 Shushan Gate
考古资料：《圣经考古评论》（双月刊）Mar/Apr 2009 （英文）
Zion Gate, on the southwest perimeter of the Old City,
leads from the tomb of King David and the Upper Room on Mount Zion into
the Armenian and the Jewish Quarters of the Old City. In Hebrew it’s
called Sha’ar Tziyon (Zion Gate) and in Arabic, Bab a-Nabi Daud (Gate of
the Prophet David).
Jaffa Gate, one of the city’s busiest, is located on the western
perimeter, right above Hinnom Valley, the Valley of Hell (Gehenna in
Greek). In ancient days, if you were a pilgrim who docked at the
Mediterranean port of Jaffa and walked east for three days, or perhaps
more, along the Jaffa Road, you would eventually reach the Jaffa Gate.
Hence its name. In Hebrew the gate is translated Sha’ar Yafo. Yafo is the
name for Jaffa in the Hebrew Bible, mentioned for example, in the Book of
New Gate is located on the northwestern perimeter of the walled city. Its Hebrew name is Sha’ar Hadash and its Arabic name is Bab el Jedid, both meaning “new.” The gate was opened in 1887 by the Turkish sultan Abed el Hamid after intense lobbying by Christians who had settled outside the walled city and wanted direct access to the Christian Quarter and the Church of the Holy Sepulcher.
Damascus Gate, on Fridays and Saturdays, is the busiest gate leading into
the city, with hundreds and sometimes thousands of shoppers looking for
bargains, home-grown spices or the freshest fruits. Located along the
northern wall of the Old City, Damascus Gate is named after the most
important city to the north during nearly every historical period. Its
Hebrew name is Sha’ar Shechem, meaning Nablus Gate, after the northern
city of Nablus, established by the Romans 1900 years ago.
Flowers Gate (Herod's Gate）
Herod’s Gate, also called Flowers Gate, is located on the northeastern
perimeter of the Old City.
Lions Gate, located on the eastern perimeter of the Old City, is also
Golden Gate （Eastern Gate）
The Eastern Gate was identified by the
Prophet Ezekiel when he wrote in chapter 44, “The prince will enter
through this gate and he will eat bread before the Lord.” This is the
origin of the Judeo-Christian belief that the Messiah will enter through
the eastern gate.
Dung Gate. From inside the city, to reach the gate, one would walk downhill and it’s where Old City residents, over the centuries, would throw their garbage. Can you imagine anyone ever walking uphill to throw their garbage? Well, that name stuck in Hebrew as well – it’s called Sha’ar Ashpot. Paradoxically, the Dung Gate is today one of the cleanest areas in the Old City. In Arabic the gate is called Bab el Mugrabi meaning the gate of the North Africans. During the Turkish times there was a neighborhood inside the Dung Gate, close to the Wailing Wall called the Mugrabi neighborhood whose residents had originated from North Africa.
When you enter the Old City through the Dung Gate, you’ll
walk up directly through the security outpost to the Western (“Wailing”)
Wall plaza. If it happens to be a weekday when the Temple Mount is open to
Jews and Christians, you can view the Dome of the Rock and the El Aqsa
Mosque from close-up and photograph the inside
Tanners' Gate is located in the Old City's southern wall, near the Dung Gate. It is the second oldest entrance into the Old City, a pedestrian gate probably built in the 12th Century by the Crusaders near a cattle market (hence the name). Suleiman the Magnificant filled in Tanners' Gate when he built the present-day Old City walls, gates and towers. The gate was discovered during post-1967 archeological investigations, partially reconstructed and interpreted as part of the Beth Shalom Garden. It was studied further during excavations along the Old City walls in 1995. The Jerusalem Foundation supported archeological excavation and restoration of the gate and construction of an adjoining plaza into the Old City, which was dedicated to the memory of Yitzhak Rabin in 1996. The restored gate was the first new opening into the Old City walls since 1887.
Huldah Gate （两组封闭的城门：左边两个和右边三个）
The Huldah Gate is sealed and situated on the southern wall area.
Named for the prophetess in 2
“哈西拿的子孙建立鱼门（fish gate），架横梁、安门扇和闩锁。”(But the fish gate did the sons of Hassenaah build, who also laid the beams thereof, and set up the doors thereof, the locks thereof, and the bars thereof.）（尼三：3）
“管理米斯巴、各荷西的儿子沙仑修造泉门（the gate of the fountain），立门、盖门顶、安门扇和闩锁。。”（But the gate of the fountain repaired Shallun the son of Col-hozeh, the ruler of part of Mizpah; he built it, and covered it, and set up the doors thereof, the locks thereof, and the bars thereof。。）（尼三：15）
修造或建立城门的时候，我们就看到有架横梁（laid the beams）、立门（built）、盖门顶（covered）、安门扇（set up the doors）和闩锁（locks and the bars）。。这方面的资料相当缺乏，我们会掠过不谈。下图是耶路撒冷的一个古城门，现已封闭不用。